Passover Haggadah (Israel 2017)

Passover HaggadahIssue date April 4, 2017

Hundreds of different Passover Haggadahs have been designed at kibbutzim, by kibbutz movements, pioneer trainings, youth groups tied to the kibbutz movement, in Hebrew military units that operated in Eretz Israel during WWII, by groups of those uprooted in Europe after the war, by Jews attempting to enter Eretz Israel illegally during the British Mandate, by the Haganah, the Palmach and the IDF.

These Haggadahs were geared toward large public Seders, which were very different than an intimate family Seder. These public Seders were more like the mass pilgrimages of ancient times. At the Seder, participants read biblical chapters related to the exodus from Egypt and discussed Moses, who is not mentioned in the traditional Haggadah. When the Holocaust became known, a heart wrenching memorial prayer was added to the Seder.

These non-traditional Haggadahs meant no disrespect to the story of the exodus from Egypt. Their authors felt that they were the ones who had been enslaved and were going forth into freedom. At the Passover Seder they expressed the spring, the love in the Song of Songs and the story of their times, which they had lived through personally. These Haggadahs included Hebrew literature and chapters on current events.

Over the years, many traditional texts were brought back into the Haggadahs, but they continued to include poems, chapters on spring, the Song of Songs and the biblical story of the exodus from Egypt.

The editors of the texts in these Haggadahs were members of the various groups that conducted the Seders, including teachers, authors and cultural figures. Some of the most well known Israeli and local artists and illustrators contributed illustrations to the Haggadahs. The three Haggadahs featured on the stamps represent three Zionist values: security, Aliyah and settlement.

The Kibbutz Artzi Federation, 1944 (Aliyah)
Avraham (Tushek) Amarent was a member of Kibbutz Mizra, an artist and a scholar. He bequeathed all of his artistic works to his kibbutz. He decorated for the Seder and was among the designers of the Haggadah that was used by all the Kibbutz Artzi Federation kibbutzim. He wrote in his memoirs: “… when the spring returned, the Jewish people were in danger of being annihilated in the diaspora, Eretz Israel was at war and the human spirit reinforced the longing for salvation and freedom”. Illustration courtesy of Dalia Hadshi.

Pirkei Pesach (Passover Chapters), Haganah, 1948 (security)
This Haggadah was written and edited by the Haganah cultural service for Haganah soldiers during Israel’s War of Independence. It was titled: For the Festival of Freedom – Chapters for Passover Parties, 1948. It was purposely not called a Haggadah in order to preserve the honor of the traditional Haggadah.

It was designed by artist Arieh Allweil, one of the founders of the Hashomer Hatzair kibbutzim who specialized in traditional script and painting Jewish motifs.
Photos of the Haggadah from the National Library collection, Jerusalem.

Illustrations courtesy of Ruth Sperling.

Kibbutz Ein Gev, 1944 (settlement)
In 1943, when the Holocaust became known, a “black” Haggadah was prepared at Ein Gev. A year later Ludwig Schwerin, who was close to the members of the kibbutz, designed a Haggadah of consolation featuring a view of the kibbutz: a group of members and children overlooking the kibbutz from Mount Sussita – an expression of hope despite the ongoing world war. Photos of the Haggadah: Ein Gev archive; illustrations courtesy of Dorit Bodker and Anat Fuchs.

Muki Tsur
Researcher and educator, member of Kibbutz Ein Gev. Co-wrote with Yuval Danieli the book “Leaving in the Month of Spring” (Passover Haggadahs from the kibbutz), .2004
Co-edited the book by Zvi Shuah “Today you Leave for a New Land” (texts from the Kibbutz Haggadah), 2011.

Aviram Paz
Author of the book “The Exodus from Egypt – Then and Now” (rare Haggadahs from the 1940’s), Maarechet Publishing House, Kibbutz Dalia, 2015.

The three stamps in the series are issued in stamp sheets with decorated margins. The margin designs are based on the Haggadah featured in each stamp.
The FDC design is based on the Kibbutz Artzi Haggadah.

50 Years Of Settlements (Israel 2017)

50 Years of Settling the Golan, Jordan Valley, Judea and Samaria Issue date April 4, 2017

Since its earliest days, settling the land was at the forefront of Zionist activity in Eretz Israel and great efforts were made to acquire land and build communities throughout the country. The moshavot (agricultural colonies) established by immigrants of the First Aliyah, the kibbutzim and moshavim (communal agricultural communities) originating from the British Mandate period and the urban towns founded in the early years after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 – are all examples of links in the golden chain of the momentum of settlement which has existed continuously throughout the period of the Jewish people’s return to Eretz Israel.

Immediately following the Six Day War in 1967, new towns were established in portions of the country that had recently come under Israeli rule. A group of young people from kibbutzim in the Galilee established a new community in the Golan Heights in July 1967, which subsequently developed into Kibbutz Merom Golan; and children of the original settlers of Gush Etzion, which was destroyed during the War of Independence in 1948, reestablished the town of Kfar Etzion in September 1967. Some three months after the Six Day War, the Israeli government led by Prime Minister Levi Eshkol adopted a plan to establish towns in the Golan Heights and the Jordan Valley, and within a decade dozens of new communities were established in these areas. The momentum of establishing new settlements in Judea and Samaria grew in the mid-1970’s, and increased significantly from 1977 after the new government headed by Prime Minister Menachem Begin took office.

Due to the lack of agricultural land and water in the mountainous areas of Judea and Samaria, a new model of rural communities called “community settlements” was established. This model was based mainly on production industries, tourism and services as well as employment outside the community. Urban towns were also established in the new areas, some of which eventually became cities.

Agriculture developed in fields that were advantageous in the unique climate and soil of each area. Apples are grown very successfully in the elevated area, the Golan Heights. The hot dry climate of the Jordan Valley was crucial to the development of the date-growing industry and the traditional vineyards and olive groves of the mountainous areas of Judea and Samaria have been rejuvenated.

Remnants of ancient Jewish towns have been unearthed in archeological excavations near many of the new communities in the Golan Heights, Jordan Valley and Judea and Samaria. These communities renew and strengthen the historical bond between the Jewish people and its historic homeland.

Based on a publication by the Settlement Department and Division of the Jewish Agency for Israel and World Zionist Organization.

Description of the Stamps and the First Day Covers
Golan
Stamp: apples against the background of the Sa’ar River. Tab: the ancient city of Gamla (Rina Nagila, courtesy of the Golan Regional Council).
FDC: Kibbutz Merom Golan (photo from the early 1970’s, courtesy of Tova Mendel, head of the Golan Archive, current photo – Albatross).

Jordan Valley
Stamp: date grove against the background of the Samaria Mountains (Penny Elimelech, courtesy of the Jordan Valley Regional Council).
Tab: Alexandrion (“Sartaba”) (IDF Archive).

FDC: Mehola (older photo — Ariel, courtesy of the Jordan Valley Regional Council Archive, current photo — Penny Elimelech).

Judea and Samaria
Stamp: olive branch against the background of a group of youths at the Sebastia train station (train station — National Photo Collection, youths — Kobi (Yaakov) Dagan, olive branch — Shutterstock).

Tab: Herodion (www.goisrael.com).
FDC: Kfar Etzion (photo dated April 30, 1947 — National Photo Collection, current photo courtesy of Moria Halamish).

Memorial Day 2017 (Israel 2017)

Memorial Day 2017
Issue date April 4, 2017

The letter card, cover and stamp – all of which are special and unique to Memorial Day – constitute the basis of a sensitive, original and extraordinary tradition that came into being following the War of Independence.

Since Memorial Day 1952, a long line of Presidents, Prime Ministers and Ministers of Defense have signed personal letters to bereaved families of the fallen and Israel’s premier artists take part in designing the covers and stamps for this commemorative day. Thus, from year to year, an unprecedented tradition has formed which, over time, has become one of the most recognized and extraordinary ambassadors of Israel’s commemorative culture.

(From: “Dear Families” published by the Ministry of Defense, on the occasion of Israel’s 50th Anniversary)

The graphic design of the Memorial Day stamps has been expressed over the years symbolically and through monuments.

The National Memorial Hall
at Mount Herzl, Jerusalem

Dedication and sacrifice in defense of the State of Israel take an invaluable toll, which is the silver platter on which our independence and sovereignty were achieved.

On the eve of Memorial Day 2010, the government of Israel approved the establishment of a National Memorial Hall on the grounds of the military cemetery at Mount Herzl to commemorate Israel’s fallen soldiers (government meeting no. 147).
For the first time since the establishment of the State, the names of all of Israel’s fallen, who gave their lives to defend Israel at home and abroad, will be united in one place.

The Memorial Hall’s location at Mount Herzl – the pantheon of Israeli heroism, constitutes a continuation of the Zionist vision of revival and realization.

The torch-shaped Memorial Hall will be 18 meters high and feature a perpetual flame. The name and date of death for each of the fallen will appear on a plaque beside a memorial candle that will be lit on that date each year. A military cantor shall perform a memorial service every morning for soldiers who fell on that date.

The memorial plaques will be made out of tank steel and produced at the Merkava tank factory. Bereaved families, heads of state and the general public will be able to come to the Memorial Hall every day throughout the year.

National ceremonies will be conducted in the Memorial Hall center, including memorial wreaths marking the nation’s solidarity and appreciation of its fallen warriors.

The team planning the commemorative site includes Kimmel Eshkolot Architects in collaboration with Kalush Chechik Architects and curator Dr. Orit Shaham-Gover.

The project is managed by the Ministry of Defense’s Families and Commemoration Department, in collaboration with a steering committee of public figures and representatives of the bereaved families, commemoration experts and former IDF commanders.

A cornerstone laying ceremony for the Memorial Hall building was conducted on April 30, 2014, the eve of the Hebrew month of Eyar (“the month of heroism”). Construction is scheduled to be completed in 2017.

Based on the Ministry of Defense Families and Commemoration Department website.

Images of the National Memorial Hall on the stamp and FDC — courtesy of Kimmel Eshkolot Architects.

Jerusalem – 50 Years of Reunification (Israel 2017)

Jerusalem – 50 Years of Reunification – Souvenir Sheet
Issue date April 4, 2017 

The year 2017 marks fifty years since the unification of Jerusalem. The 50th anniversary of unified Jerusalem is a local, national and global event that is meaningful for the State of Israel, for the Jewish people around the world and for all the communities and peoples that cherish Jerusalem.

The fact that the capital of Israel and of the Jewish people no longer sits alone with a wall at its heart will be celebrated throughout the year.

Jerusalem is a metropolis that attempts to balance different beliefs and opinions, opposing tastes and habits. The Old City inside the ancient walls, the old neighborhoods outside those walls and the new neighborhoods built in this generation are all one city, special and unified.

From the time King David declared Jerusalem as the capital of his kingdom to the present day, daily life in Jerusalem has always existed alongside its stance as an object of desire and longing.

Fifty years ago the two parts of the divided city were united in a historic turn of events. During the subsequent fifty years, Jerusalem has also known heartache and suffering, but despite the hardships it has become one city.

The capital of the Jewish world fulfills its calling as the capital of the State of Israel and as the heart of the Jewish people, while also maintaining the places that are holy to people of all religions.

On the 50th anniversary of the unification of Jerusalem, the State of Israel is marking the historic event that took place in June 1967 with a series of events in Israel and abroad.

Jerusalem salutes its soldiers, embraces its residents, welcomes its guests and celebrates with all those who love it.

Hundreds of thousands of peoples from all around Israel and the world will march, visit and pray during the festivities. A wide range of participants will take part in the many various festivities, in the spirit of the diverse nature of Jerusalem — a vibrant city that is open to different opinions and to people of all backgrounds. The city combines the old and the new, tradition and innovation and has its own unique character.

A single thread runs from the excavations in the City of David through the digging of the foundations of the light railway: one central city where everyday life is intertwined with history.

Description of the Souvenir Sheet
Western Wall stamp
Jews at the Western Wall: photographers from the photography department of the American Colony, circa 1900. G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, Library of Congress, Washington DC.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem stamp
The water tower at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus – courtesy of the Hebrew University Archive.

Sheet Background
A section of the Temple Scroll; Israel Museum Photo Archive; Anemone and digital background — Shutterstock.

The light railway, the Knesset and the Shrine of the Book — Pini Hemo; Ammunition Hill and the Bridge of Strings ñ Meir Eshel; Lion Statue — courtesy of Ariel Events.

Israel-Portugal Joint Issue – Dolphin Research (Israel 2017)

Israel-Portugal Joint Issue – Dolphin Research
Issue date April 4, 2017

The diplomatic relations between Israel and the Portuguese Republic developed in stages. An Israeli consulate was first opened in Lisbon in the late 1950’s. After the Carnation Revolution in Portugal in April 1974, this was upgraded to a general consulate and in 1977 to an embassy, the highest indication of full diplomatic relations. Since then the two countries have benefitted from friendly and collaborative relations in many fields.

The Jewish people have ancient ties to Portugal, but the Portuguese Jewish community experienced dramatic changes beginning in the early 15th century: expulsion, forced conversion and the Inquisition. In 1989, a formal apology from the Portuguese people was issued to the Jews and in 1996 the Decree of Expulsion was nullified on the 500th anniversary of its issuance.

During WWII, many Jews passed through Portugal, mostly immigrating to other countries and later also to Israel.

Israel recognized four Portuguese “Righteous Gentiles”. The most well known is Aristides de Sousa Mendes, who issued visas to thousands of Jews while serving as the Portuguese consul-general in Bordeaux, France during the Holocaust. An Israeli stamp was issued in his honor in 1998.

This stamp is issued to mark 40 years of friendship between the countries.

Tzipora Rimon
Israeli Ambassador to Portugal

Dolphin Research
The study of coastal dolphins is a relatively young field of research that has developed in both Portugal and Israel in recent decades. In both countries, the coastal dolphin population exists alongside fishing activity and at times dolphins are caught by fishing equipment, causing them injury and even death. Bottlenose dolphins are top predators of the coastal marine environment in both countries. They are considered to be a sentinel species for a healthy sea, both in the broad sense of the health of the system as well as in the narrow sense of human health, as consumers of food products from the sea.

Common Bottlenose Dolphin
(Tursiops truncatus)
This dolphin species belongs to the family Delphinidae and is most commonly found in tropical to temperate oceans, mainly in the shallow waters of the continental shelf, where water depths are up to 200 meters. Mature dolphins range from 2-4 meters in length and weigh between 150-650 kgs. Dolphins tend to live in groups of up to 12 members, although a number of groups may join together to create a larger super-group of 100 or more dolphins. The two main factors that contribute to group size are food availability and danger from predators.

Dr. Aviad Scheinin, PhD.
Dolphin & Sea Center Manager, IMMRAC – Israeli Marine Mammals Research & Assistance Center
The Morris Kahn Marine Research Center – Top Predators Project manager, University of Haifa, Israel

Photos of the dolphin, boat and flags – Shutterstock.

Brit Hayyale Ha’Etsel (Israel 2017)

from Israel Post; this stamp will be issued February 7, 2017:
The National Military Organization in Eretz Israel (Etsel) broke away from the Haganah paramilitary organization in the spring of 1931. In the years before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the organization operated clandestinely against Arab rioters during the revolt of 1936-1939 and took part in “Nonetheless” operations together with the Revisionist, Betar and HaTzohar groups to rescue European Jews before and during WWII. Members in Poland fought against the German enemy in the ghettos and took part in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1943 as part of the Jewish Military Union, led by Pawel Frankel. Members in Eretz Israel were recruited to fight against Germany as volunteers in the British military. Etsel commander David Raziel was killed in the line of duty in Iraq on May 20, 1941. In February 1944 the Etsel, led by Menachem Begin, waged a campaign against the British authorities and government policy in Eretz Israel. Members were suppressed from within by the Haganah, but obeyed their leader’s decree never to take up arms against their brethren. Together with the Haganah-Palmach and Lehi, Etsel fighters, and especially those sentenced to death by hanging by the British Mandate courts, contributed to the establishment of the State of Israel. On July 13, 1980, the anniversary of the death of Etsel military leader Ze’ev Jabotinsky, Prime Minister Menachem Begin spoke at Mount Herzl in Jerusalem of those who fought both overtly and clandestinely: “Ö with their blood they sprouted the tree of freedom for their People, with their bodies they paved the way to the mountaintop”.

The Brit Hayyale Ha’Etsel organization (est. 1983) is committed to commemorating the memory of the fighters throughout the generations and to preserving their legacy.

Goals: to organize former Etsel members within a non-partisan social framework, encourage historical research, literary works and documentation to endow the legacy of the Etsel and its fighters. From the start, the organization has worked to achieve government recognition of the Etsel’s contribution to national liberation, defense of the Jewish Yishuv in Eretz Israel against Arab rioters and the struggle against the British authorities and against the Arab armies during the War of Independence. The Alliance (“Brit”) works to have the Etsel’s fallen, injured and missing declared as fallen IDF soldiers.

The organization worked to erect a memorial monument dedicated to the Acre prison escapees, to those who fell during the Altalena Affair and to those hanged on the gallows by the British. It has also established the Etsel Museum and the Etsel Museum 1948 named after Amichai Paglin (Gidi) in Tel Aviv-Jaffa in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense, as well as the Etsel Museum in Jabotinsky Shuni Park in Binyamina and the monument commemorating the 51 Etsel members who fell in the battle for Ramlah in 1948. The organization also conducts memorial services and holds services commemorating the fighters in the Etsel plots in cemeteries around Israel. The operations of the Brit, including documentation, publishing and film production, expose the public to the heroism of the Etsel fighters at the dawn of our independence.

— Yosef Kister
Jabotinsky Institute historical consultant and researcher

Description of the Stamp and First Day Cover
The stamp design is based on a photograph of Etsel combat soldiers who fought in the Menashia Battle in Jaffa (April 25-May 1, 1948).

The stamp tab features a quote from the Betar Song, written by Ze’ev Jabotinsky, and the Etsel Badge, which was presented by the Ministry of Defense to those who served in the Etsel.

The FDC features a photograph of the Etsel’s Jerusalem Regiment in formation, Jerusalem August 4, 1948.

From left to right: Mordechai Raanan and Menachem Begin.

The photographs and quote are courtesy of Jabotinsky Institute in Israel.

Zionist Organization of America (Israel 2017)

from Israel Post; this souvenir leaf will be issued February 7, 2017:
120 Years of the Zionist Organization of America
[Souvenir Leaf]

The ZOA, founded in 1897, is the oldest and one of the largest pro-Israel organizations in the United States. Its roster of distinguished presidents includes U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver who led the fight in America to reestablish the Jewish State, and currently, Morton A. Klein who was named one of the top five influential Jewish leaders by the Forward newspaper.

With chapters throughout the United States, ZOA works to educate the U.S. Congress, the media and the public about the ongoing Arab/Islamist war against Israel, and to strengthen and enhance the U.S.-Israel relationship. We promote the legal, religious, political and historic right of Jews to live in Judea and Samaria, and emphasize the truth that an undivided Jerusalem is the eternal capital of Israel and the Jewish people.

ZOA led the fight to ensure that Title VI of the Civil Rights Act was interpreted to protect Jewish students from discrimination and harassment in federally funded schools. Providing programs, materials and other resources and support to students on college campuses across the country, we are building informed, strong and effective Zionist leaders for the future.

ZOA also has an Israel office in Jerusalem, which works to educate local and visiting government officials, community leaders, journalists, academics and others about ZOAís views on the important issues facing Israel.

The officeís educational and advocacy initiatives have improved security in eastern Jerusalem, addressed anti-Semitic incitement and the plight of victims of Arab terrorism, and encouraged pride in Israelís national rights and Zionist ideals.

— The Zionist Organization of America

Description of the Stamp
The photograph of the Statue of Liberty is from Fotolia. The photograph of the Knesset Menorah and the images of the Israeli and American flags are from Shutterstock.

The four symbols on the stamp represent the main areas of ZOA activity: Congress, Justice system, Higher Education and Media.

Aromatic Plants (Israel 2017)

from Israel Post; these stamps will be issued February 7, 2017:
“Who is she that comes up from the desert like columns of smoke, in clouds of myrrh and frankincense, of all the powders of the merchant” (Song of Songs 3:6).

The Aromatic Plants stamp series features different types of myrrh and frankincense, aromatic plants which were very significant in the history of Eretz Israel.

Today, Aromatic Plants are mostly thought of as fragrant plants used for the production of volatile fragrant materials ñ “essential oils”, by the distillation process. However, in the distant past this process was unknown and perfumes were produced using methods of extraction or resin drainage from certain plants.

Thus, myrrh and frankincense, which grew mainly in the Red Sea area of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, became an important and precious source for perfumes.

Throughout history, these plants have been used for cosmetics, medicine and mainly for religious rituals in ancient Egyptian, Jewish, Christian and Far Eastern temples.

They are mentioned frequently in the Bible and are among the ingredients used in the incense offering made in the Temple.

The great demand for these plants led to the establishment of trade routes, where caravans of camels carried their wares from the key growing areas to Egypt, Eretz Israel and Europe. Over time, Eretz Israel became an important crossroads on the Incense Route, which was controlled by the Nabateans.

In addition, Eretz Israel was known for growing another well known aromatic plant ñ balsam, which grew mainly in the Dead Sea and Gilead area. Balsam was unique to Eretz Israel and was also used for cosmetics, medicine and incense, and was an important economic resource. Thus, the method for its production was kept confidential, as referenced in the mosaic floor in the ancient synagogue unearthed in Ein Gedi.

Frankincense
A genus (Boswellia) of the Burseraceae family that includes a number of tree and bush species from which the resin used for the incense called frankincense is derived. The resin is collected in containers after puncturing the bark of the young tree trunk.

Myrrh
A genus (Commiphora) that also belongs to the Burseraceae family which includes species of bushes from which the resin used for the incense called myrrh is derived by slicing the bark of young branches. The species most commonly used is Commiphora mirrha.

Balsam
The balsam plant is mentioned in ancient writings and is consistent with the biblical Tzori plant which served as the source for producing high quality perfume. After some deliberation regarding the identification of the plant, there is now widespread agreement among researchers identifying it as one of the myrrh species of the Burseraceae family, Commiphora gileadensis, which still grows in the southern Arabian Peninsula. This plant was introduced to Israel and acclimatized in recent years and is now cultivated in the Ein Gedi and northern Dead Sea area.

— Prof. Nativ Dudai, Ph.D
The Unit of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya’ar Research Center

UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Israel 2017)

from Israel Post; these stamps will be issued February 7, 2017:
In 1972, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) approved an agreement to protect world heritage sites. The program included rules to assess natural and cultural sites and determine their significance to mankind’s common cultural heritage. Every country prepares a list of its sites and once a year the UNESCO World Heritage Center conducts a special meeting to choose which of the nominated sites shall be included in the list of United Nations World Heritage Sites.

In 1999, Israel joined the agreement and submitted sites for consideration, and since 2001 a number of Israeli sites have been added to the list: Old City of Acre (2001), Masada (2001), White City of Tel Aviv (2003), Biblical Tels ñ Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba (2005), Incense Route ñ Desert Cities in the Negev (Avdat, Mamshit, Haluza and Shivta) (2005), Baha’i Holy Places (2008), Nahal Me’arot Caves (2012), Maresha and Bet-Guvrin Caves (2014), Bet She’arim Necropolis (2015).

Nahal Me’arot Caves
Four caves are carved into the mountain on the southern slope of Mount Carmel, at the entrance to the Nahal Me’arot Caves. Archeological excavations conducted at the site from 1928 to the present have discovered evidence of human existence near and inside the caves over hundreds of thousands of years. Among the many findings were remnants of houses, various stone tools, jewelry, bones of animals used for food and graves.

Bet She’arim Necropolis
Rabbi Yehudah Hanasi, leader of the Jewish people in the late 2nd century CE, was buried at his behest in the cemetery in the town of Bet She’arim in the western Jezreel Valley. Many others subsequently asked to be buried near the final resting place of the admired leader. Dozens of burial caves were carved into the hillsides and on the outskirts of the town. Jews were brought from all over Eretz Israel and even from faraway lands to be buried there. The hundreds of epitaphs found in the caves provide information about the Jewish lifestyle in the 3rd and 4th centuries CE.

Maresha and Bet-Guvrin Caves
Residents of the city of Maresha, in the southern Judean plain, carved many spaces beneath their homes into the soft chalk bedrock upon which the city was built. These spaces served as water reservoirs, agricultural production facilities, storage rooms, pigeon raising, burial caves and more. After Maresha was destroyed in the 1st century BCE a new city called Bet-Guvrin was constructed nearby. In the Byzantine period, the townspeople carved bricks out of the chalk in deep, bell-shaped caves.

In June 2007, Acre, Tel Aviv and Masada stamps were issued as part of the World Heritage Site stamp series and in August 2007 the Biblical Tels and Incense Route stamps were added.

Description of the Stamps
Nahal Me’arot Caves The view from inside the cave toward the Nahal Me’arot Caves landscape (photo by Ronen Goldberg).

Carved flint hand axe from the Lower Paleolithic period found in the Tabun Cave. (photo: Midad Sokolovski; courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority).

Topographic map of Nahal Me’arot Caves (based on an Israel Antiquities Authority map).

Bet She’arim Necropolis
FaÁade of the Sarcophagi Cave, cave number 20 (courtesy of the Nature and Parks Authority, photo: Tsvika Tsuk).

Plaster relief in the shape of a menorah in the Sarcophagi Cave (photo: Shutterstock).

Partial diagram of the caves (based on a sketch in a Nature and Parks Authority pamphlet).

Maresha and Bet-Guvrin Caves
Bell cave in Bet-Guvrin (photo: Shutterstock).

Cave drawing of Cerberus, mythological hound that guards the gates of the underworld, from the Sidon Burial Cave (courtesy of the Nature and Parks Authority, photo: Jonny Limonik).

Partial diagram of the caves in the Maresha and Bet-Guvrin area (based on a sketch in a Nature and Parks Authority pamphlet).

Krav Maga (Martial Art) (Israel 2017)

from Israel Post; this stamp will be issued February 7, 2017:
Krav Maga is an Israeli martial art designed for self-defense, a method that allows anyone to defend him or herself against acts of violence. Krav Maga students learn how to protect themselves from arm and leg blows, strangulations, stabbing, bludgeoning and even how to deal with gun threats. Krav Maga is unique due to its simplicity and effectiveness in utilizing the attacker’s weak points. The technique was developed during the Yishuv period prior to the creation of the State of Israel, when the British Mandate government banned the bearing of arms following the 1936-39 Arab revolts. The Yishuv Council decreed that every Jewish boy and girl from the age of 13 and up must learn how to defend themselves in time of need. Krav Maga was also an inherent part of the training for members of the various underground defense organizations. The early Krav Maga was a combination of boxing and Japanese jujutsu. The jujutsu drills, however proved to be too difficult to master and therefore new, original drills, unique in their effectiveness and simplicity, were developed.

In the Yishuv, Krav Maga was initially called ìface-to-face combatî and included the use of a hoe handle as a defensive and offensive tool, providing a sense of security at a time when it was illegal to bear arms.

When the State of Israel and the IDF were established in 1948, Krav Maga became part of the standard training for combat soldiers. The head instructor was Imi Lichtenfeld, who founded the first civilian school for Krav Maga when he retired from the IDF in 1964. Lichtenfeld expanded the method to provide a solution to civilian threats, utilizing the military principles of simplicity and efficiency. In the 1980’s the method was exported outside of Israel. Today, Krav Maga is taught in every large Western city and is the chosen method of security forces in Israel and abroad.

— Aviad Segal
Israeli Fighting School for Krav Maga

Description of the Stamp and First Day Cover
The stamp presents the development of the method. The stamp features trainees practicing a side kick against a punch from the side (photo: Pini Hemo). The tab features a Krav Maga fight from the Yishuv period, when trainees used hoe handles. (courtesy of the Palmach photo curator, Palmach Museum). The First Day Cover design is based on a photo courtesy of Aviad Segal.